“Walmart, the world largest retailer, has launched an initiative to remove 1 gigaton of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from its supply chain by 2030. To put that in perspective, that is the equivalent of removing the annual emissions of Germany — the world’s fourth-largest economy — from the atmosphere.” 
Climate change is certainly one of the most urgent issues of our time. While it is easy to understand the ethical reasons to reduce GHG emissions to impact climate change, there are two main reasons why reducing GHG emission is also a great business opportunity:
• “supply chains are vulnerable to risks and potential costs associated with the physical and regulatory threats related to global climate change” ;
• “Managing greenhouse gas emissions has also been shown to enhance brand and market value in some circumstances” .
The Sustainability Consortium stated that the modern supply chain is responsible for 60% of all greenhouse gas emissions, 80% of all water use, and 66% of all tropical deforestation.
Walmart took the lead on GHG emission reduction in 2005, setting three main goals: create zero waste in company operations, operate with 100% renewable energy, sell products that sustain the environment. In the last few years, Walmart invested in alternative energy, particularly solar, creating thousands of job opportunities for American solar companies, and now obtains 25% of its energy from renewable sources. It also doubled the emission efficiency of the US fleet, achieving an emission reduction of 650,000 metric tons of CO2, saving nearly $1 Billion in 2015 . But most important, Walmart managed to be the first retailer with an emission-reduction plan approved by the Science Based Target Initiative, that complies with the Paris Climate Change Agreement of December 2015. Under this plan, Walmart committed to aggressive long-term goals:
• 18% emission reduction in the operations between 2015 and 2025 ;
• Work with suppliers to reduce emissions by 1 Gigaton by 2030 .
This second goal is particularly ambitious. Walmart will need to engage the thousands of companies involved in its supply chain. To do this, it created the Walmart Sustainability Hub, an online platform that gathers a community of suppliers willing to accept the challenge.
In this platform, Walmart explains the project goal, why it decided to focus on particular areas, the so-called “pillars” (emissions, energy, agriculture, waste, packaging, deforestation, product use and design) and how it encourages suppliers to participate (Figure 3).
The pillars are described as specific enough to focus work, and broad enough to include a wide group of suppliers. Walmart worked together with NGOs, including World Wildlife Fund and Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), creating the emissions reduction toolkit, to explore opportunities for emission reduction in each pillar.
For example, for waste, the toolkit includes:
• Benefits of reducing waste (e.g., reduce costs, increase efficient use of resources, reduce GHG emissions) ;
• Relevant goals that companies might set (e.g., “divert 80% of solid waste in your operations by 2030”) ;
• Practical guidance on setting goals (e.g., guidelines to develop a general waste diversion plan, and opportunities for improvement for each step, see Figure 5 for details) ;
• Guidelines to report your progress annually .
Moreover, suppliers are asked to contribute to the hub if they have alternative solutions to reduce any of the pillars.
Walmart’s action is certainly bold, it demonstrates unparalleled vision and leadership in the industry. The Hub provides toolkits, information, and, most important, a Hub to grow a community. However, a critical step of this process is convincing companies to make a big change in their operations to achieve long term benefits. Retail suppliers are traditionally skeptical about change, especially if that requires significant capital expenditures. For this reason, Walmart has room to improve its strategy to convince suppliers.
For example, additional economic incentives guaranteed by Walmart to its suppliers would make them more eager to embrace the project. Furthermore, the Hub offers great support for the first steps of the project (commitment and execution), but limited resources are available for scaling, which is probably the hardest part of the implementation process.
“Companies are not shrinking in the face of potential political opposition to climate goals—they’re doubling down” said Carter Roberts, CEO of World Wildlife Fund . Is this true? How many companies will be willing to leave their comfort zone, challenge Washington’s political view about the issue, and start their sustainability journey? An initiative of this magnitude will take a village to execute. Will this village grow fast enough to reach such an ambitious goal?
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 Elizabeth Sturcken, “Why Walmart’s Project Gigaton is corporate America’s ‘moonshot’”, Greenbiz, April 19, 2017, [https://www.greenbiz.com/article/why-walmarts-project-gigaton-corporate-americas-moonshot].
 Chonnikarn (Fern) Jira, Michael W. Toffel, “Engaging Supply Chains in Climate Change”, Harvard Business School, March 1, 2013, sec. 1, p. 1.
 Thomas K. Dasaklis, Costas P. Pappis, “Supply chain management in view of climate change: An overview of possible impacts and the road ahead”, University of Piraeus, March 1, 2013, sec. 1.
 Walmart company. “Company Overview”. https://news.walmart.com/2017/04/19/walmart-launches-project-gigaton-to-reduce-emissions-in-companys-supply-chain, accessed November 2017.
 Walmart Sustainability Hub, “ https://www.walmartsustainabilityhub.com, accessed November 2017.
 Matthew Boyle, “Walmart’s wants suppliers to Eliminate a Gigaton of greenhouse gases by 2030”, Bloomberg, April 20, 2017, [https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-04-20/wal-mart-wants-suppliers-to-eliminate-a-gigaton-of-greenhouse-gases-by-2030]